William Raynor VC (1795-1860)Home / Plumtree History / Characters / William Raynor VC

William Raynor was born in Plumtree in 1795, joined the Honourable East India Company [1] and had a distinguished military career which culminated in his heroic defence of the Magazine at Delhi during the Indian Mutiny, an act for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

This page summarises the life of Captain Raynor, how he won his VC, how it was sold and bought back again, and how he is commemorated in Plumtree, the village of his birth.

Early Life

July 1795

William Raynor was born in the village of Plumtree, Nottinghamshire. His parents were John and Elizabeth Raynor (neé Tongue) who were married on 22nd January 1793 in St. Mary's Church, Plumtree.

William had an older sister, Mary, who was baptised in St. Mary’s Church, Plumtree on 18th January 1794 but died in infancy (buried 22nd June 1795).

William's parents, Elizabeth (who died in July 1819, aged 63) and John (who died in October 1819, aged 57) are both buried in Plumtree churchyard.

10th August 1796

William was baptised in St. Mary's Church, Plumtree.

William's Army Service

1812

Enlisted in the Service of the the Honourable East India Company [1].

February 1813

Arrived in India in the HEIC's ship "Hugh Inglis" having been allotted to the Bengal European Regiment.

8th October 1819

William Raynor married Mary Wilkinson, a widow (who, sadly, died in 1819).

6th November
1820

Appointed a Sub-Conductor [2] in the Ordnance Commissariat Dept. and was soon afterwards posted to the arsenal in Fort William.

14th January
1823

Promoted to the rank of Conductor [2] and posted to the Magazine at Cawnpore (at which station he served uninterruptedly for more than twenty years).

27th August
1823

William Raynor married Mary Anne Werril at Cawnpore, India. They went on to have five children:

  • William Joseph Raynor, born 26th Oct 1826, Cawnpore, India
  • Adelaide Louisa Raynor; born 14th July 1834, Cawnpore, India
  • Richard John Raynor; born 8th October 1836, Cawnpore, India
  • Thomas Samuel Raynor; born 14th July 1839, Cawnpore, India
  • Albert Charles Raynor; born 18th September 1844, Delhi, India

6th October
1843

Promoted to the rank of Deputy Assistant Commissary of Ordnance and posted to the Delhi Magazine (in which he served for nearly fourteen years).

17th April
1845

Promoted to the rank of Assistant Commissary of Ordnance.

17th August
1852

Advanced to commissioned rank (Commissary of Ordnance) and appointed a Lieutenant of the Veteran Establishment. This type of promotion was almost unheard of within the East India Company's army, a substantial achievement.

10th July
1855

Posted to the Magazine at Ferozepore, but was directed to continue doing duty as a temporary arrangement at Delhi. He was in Delhi at the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

Indian Mutiny

1857 to 1859

Causes
The 1850s saw a deterioration in relations between the British officers and the Indian other ranks in the East India Company's Bengal Army. Many Indians believed that the British were seeking to destroy traditional Indian social, religious and cultural customs, a view shared by the sepoys of the Bengal Army, a substantial number of whom were high-caste Brahmins. Discipline, administration and command in the Bengal Army had for some time been inferior to that in the East India Company's other two armies and matters were brought to a head by the introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle. The rumour spread that its cartridges were greased with pig and cow fat, thus offending both Moslems and Hindus. In February 1857 the 19th (Bengal Native) Infantry refused to use the cartridges. They were quickly disbanded but their actions were to spark a chain of similar events through central and northern India.

Outbreak
The Mutiny - more commonly known in India as 'The Uprising' - began in earnest at Meerut on 10th May 1857 when 85 members of the 3rd (Bengal) Light Cavalry who had been imprisoned for refusing to use the cartridges were rescued by Indian comrades. The following day Delhi fell to the mutineers. News of these events spread rapidly, leading to further mutinies elsewhere. Eventually all ten Bengal Light Cavalry Regiments and most of the 74 Bengal Native Infantry Regiments were affected. Some regiments were disarmed before they had the chance to mutiny while in other cases British officers simply refused to doubt the loyalty of their men until it was too late. Many local rulers supported the mutineers, having been alienated by the East India Company's annexation of native states. There were only 35,000 British soldiers in the whole sub-continent and these were widely scattered. Furthermore, reinforcements took months to arrive. Fortunately for the British the Mutiny was almost exclusively confined to the Bengal Army. The Company's Madras and Bombay Armies were relatively unaffected and other units, including Sikhs, Punjabi Moslems and Gurkhas, remained loyal.

Delhi
The walled city of Delhi became the focal point of the Mutiny. It was the seat of Bahadur Shah, the aged Mughal Emperor, and it occupied a key strategic position between Calcutta and the new territories of the Punjab. The Delhi Magazine was a prime target for the mutineers and the story of how the British soldiers tried (and failed) to defend it is described below:

The recapture of Delhi became a priority for the British. On 7 June 1857 a hastily-raised force of 4,000 men succeeded in occupying a ridge overlooking Delhi but was far too weak to attempt to retake the city itself. Faced by over 30,000 mutineers they came under increasing pressure themselves and began to suffer losses through cholera. However reinforcements gradually arrived from the Punjab, including a siege train of 32 guns and 2,000 men under Brigadier-General John Nicholson. By 14 September the British had about 9,000 men before Delhi. A third were British while the rest were Sikhs, Punjabis and Gurkhas. Breaches were made in the city walls, a gate was blown and after a week's vicious street fighting, Delhi was back under British control. Although operations continued until 1859, notably in central India, the recapture of Delhi proved a decisive factor in the suppression of the Mutiny.

Defending the Delhi Magazine

11th May
1857

In his book 'The History of the Victoria Cross' , Philip A Wilkins described the action as follows...

The troublous times of the Indian Mutiny brought to light many examples of bravery, devotion and self-sacrifice, but it was left to a little band of nine resolute men to perform the act which, of all the heroic ones of those days, will be the last to be obliterated by the hand of time. On May 11, 1857, the great Delhi Magazine, full of enormous stores of warlike material, was in charge of Lieutenant George Willoughby, Bengal Artillery, and with him were Lieutenants Forrest and Raynor, and six European soldiers.

In the early hours of that day Willoughby was in the magazine when Forrest arrived with the Magistrate, Sir Theophilus Metcalfe, and informed him that the mutineers had crossed the river and entered the palace gates. Knowing well the value of the Magazine to the enemy should they contrive to storm and take it, and how much to our cause could he but hold it, Willoughby resolved to defend it to the last, always with the hope that our troops at Meerut would soon arrive to his relief.

There were many natives on the establishment of the Magazine, but the officer saw they were not to be trusted, and he formed the heroic resolution with his eight British comrades to defend the Magazine as long as possible against the enormous odds and then at last, when overpowered, to blow the building into the air with all its inflammable contents and themselves to die at their posts.

The gates were closed and barricaded, and guns were brought out, loaded with grape shot and placed so as to command the entrances. Should the enemy force their way in through these channels, their ranks would be torn to pieces by the point blank fire of the six pounders, and then if the little band should be overpowered, at a signal – pre-concerted by Willoughby – the entire place was to be blown up and any within its walls would perish. To this end a train of powder was lain from the outside to the Magazine, Scully, with heroic resolution, undertaking the firing of the train, this duty making death a certainty should the signal be given.

Shortly afterwards a summons was brought from the King of Delhi, ordering the surrender of the Magazine. Contemptuous silence was the only reply given, upon which the enemy, bringing ladders, commenced to scale the walls, the natives in the establishment promptly joining their friends the attackers.

Thus the resolute nine, left alone, faced Death with fearless hearts, and soon the guns sent volleys of grape into the midst of the storming parties. Gun after gun fired its rounds, served coolly and steadily, the heroic gunners under a hail of bullets from those of the enemy who had now scaled the walls. After a while the supply of ammunition brought up from the Magazine began to give out, and it was impossible for more to be fetched, no one being able to leave the guns for that purpose.

Two of the gallant nine were wounded and the rebels were forcing their way in now on every side, and to his country's cause, Willoughby raised his hat – the signal arranged – John Scully applied the port-fire to the train and with an appalling explosion, the Magazine was blown into the air, more than one thousand mutineers being killed.

Of the nine heroic men, only four escaped; Willoughby and Forrest joined a party of Europeans at the Main Guard in Delhi, so blackened as to be almost unrecognizable; the former being shortly afterwards killed in an encounter with the mutineers. Raynor and Buckley, taking different directions, eventually reached Meerut in safety.

The splendour of this achievement, the nobility of heart of those who deliberately offered their lives in the furtherance of their country's cause, makes the Victoria Cross almost an insufficient reward. But, added to that decoration, and to perpetuate the memory of the heroic lives given for such a cause, a memorial tablet was placed over the gate of the old Magazine.

the delhi magazine

The memorial tablet bears the following inscription:

On the 11th May 1857
Nine Resolute Englishmen,
Lieut. Geo. Dobson Willoughby, Bengal Artillery
in Command

Lieutenant William Raynor. Lieutenant Geo. Forrest,
Conductor Geo. William Shaw, Conductor John Buckley,
Conductor John Scully, Sub-Conductor William Crow,
Sergeant BenjaminEdwards, Sergeant Peter Stewart

Defended the Magazine of Delhi for more than four hours against large numbers of the rebels and mutineers, until the walls being scaled, and all hope of succour gone, these brave men fired the Magazine - five of the gallant band perished in the explosion, which at the same time destroyed many of the enemy.

This Tablet
Marking the former entrance gate to the Magazine
is placed here by the Government of India.

 

However, a second tablet added later puts a different slant on the proceedings:

image of a second tablet, added later

.

Official Report

28 July 1857

 

Defence of the Delhi Magazine.
During the Mutiny 1857

Extract from G. O. C. C. dated 28th July 1857.

No. 940 of 1857 - The Rt. Hon. the Gov. Gen. in Council is pleased to direct the publication of the following authentic report of the occurrences at the Delhi Magazine on the 11th of May last, when attacked by mutineers, and of the noble and cool soldiership of the gallant defenders commanded by Lieut. G. D. Willoughby, Commissary of the Ordnance.

The Gov. Gen. in Council desires to offer his cordial thanks to Lieut. Raynor and Forrest, and the other survivors amongst the brave men mentioned in this report, and to express his admiration with which he regards the daring and heroic conduct of Lieut. G. D. Willoughby and the warrant and NCOs. by whom he was supported on the occasion. Their names are Lieut. Raynor and Forrest, Conductors - Shaw, Buckley, Scully, Sub. Conductors :- Crow and Sergts:- Edwards and Stewart.

The family of the late Conductor Scully, who so devotedly sacrificed himself in the explosion of the magazine, will be liberally provided for, should it be ascertained that they have survived him.
 

From:- Lieut. G. Forrest, Asst. Com. of Ordnance
To:- Col. A. Abbott, C.B. Insp. Gen. of Ordnance and Mag., Fort William [dated Meerut, 27th May 1857]

Sir,
I have the honour to report for the information of Govt. and in the absence of my C.O. Lieut. Willoughby, Artillery, supposed to be killed on his retreat from Delhi to this station, the following facts as regards the capture of the Delhi Magazine by the mutineers and insurgents on the 11th instant. On the morning of that date, between 7 & 8 am. Sir Theophilus Metcalf came to my house and requested that I would accompany him to the magazine for the purpose of having two guns placed on the Bridge, so as to prevent the Mutineers from passing over. On our arrival at the Magazine we found present Lieut: Willoughby and Raynor with Conductors Buckley, Shaw, Scully, & acting Sub-Conductors Crow, and Sergts Edwardes[sic] and Stewart with the Native establishment. On Sir Theophilus Metcalf alighting from his buggy Lieut. Willoughby & I accompanied him to the small bastion on the river face which commanded a full view of the bridge from which we could distinctly see the Mutineers marching in open column, headed by the Cavalry, and the Delhi side of the bridge was already in the possession of a body of Cavalry. On Sir Theo. Metcalf observing this, he proceeded with Lieut. Willoughby to see if the city gate was closed against the Mutineers. However this step was needless, as the mutineers were admitted directly to the Palace, through which they passed cheering.

On Lieut. Willoughby’s return to the Magazine, the gates of the Magazine were closed and barricaded & every possible arrangement that could be made, was at once commenced on. Inside the gate leading to the Park were placed two six pounders, double charged with grape, one under ccting Sub-Conductor Crow and Sergt Stewart, with the lighted matches in their hands & with orders [that] if any attempt was made to force that gate, both guns were to be fired at once, & they were to fall back on that part of the Magazine in which Lieut. Willoughby and I were posted. The principal gate of the Magazine was similarly defended by two guns, with the chevaux de frieze laid down on the inside. For further defence of this gate & the Magazine in its vicinity, there were two six pounders, so placed as either to command the gate & a small bastion in its vicinity. Within 60 yards of the gate & in front of the office, & commanding two cross roads were three six pounders & one 24 pounder Howitzer, which could be so managed as to act upon any part of the Magazine in the neighbourhood.  After all these guns & howitzers had been placed in the several positions above named, they were loaded with double charges of grape. The next step taken was to place arms in the hands of the native establishment, which they most reluctantly received, & appeared to be in a state not only of excitement but also of insubordination as they refused to obey any orders issued by the Europeans, particularly the Mussalman portion of the establishment.

After the above arrangements had been made, a train was laid by Conductors Buckley, Scully & Sergt. Stewart, ready to be fired by a preconcerted signal, which was that of Conductor Buckley raising his hat from his head, on the order being given by Lieut. Willoughby. The train was fired by Conductor Scully but not until such time as the last round from the Howitzer had been fired.

So soon as the above arrangements had been made, Guards from the palace came & demanded the possession of the Magazine in the name of the King of Delhi, to which reply was given. Immediately after this, the Subadar of the guard on duty at the Magazine informed Lieut. Willoughby & me that the King of Delhi had sent down word to the Mutineers that he would without delay send scaling ladders from the Palace for the idea of scaling the walls; which shortly after arrived. On the ladders being erected against the wall, the whole of our native Establishment deserted us by climbing up the slope sheds on the inside of the Magazine & descending the ladders on the outside, after which the enemy appeared in great numbers on the top of the walls & on whom we kept up an incessant fire of grape, every round of which told well as long as a single round remained.

Previous to the Natives deserting us they hid the Priming pouches & one man in particular Kuram Buksh, a durwan appeared to keep up a constant communication with the enemy on the outside & keep them informed of our situation. Lieut. Willoughby was so annoyed at this man’s conduct, that he gave me an order to shoot him should he approach the gate.

Lieut. Raynor, with the other Europeans did everything that possibly could be done for the defence of the Magazine & where all have behaved so bravely it is impossible to point out any individual. However, I am duty bound to bring to the notice of Govt. the gallantry of Conductors Buckley & Scully on this trying occasion. The former, assisted only by himself, load [sic] and fired in rapid succession the several guns above detailed, firing at least four rounds from each gun, & with the same steadiness as if standing on parade although the enemy were then some hundreds in number & kept up continual fire of musketry on us within 40 or 50 yards.

After firing the last round Conductor Buckley received a musket ball in the arm, above the elbow, which has since been extracted here. I, at the same time, was struck in the left hand by two musket balls, which disabled me for the time. It was at this critical moment that Lieut. Willoughby gave the order for firing the Magazine, which was at once responded to by Conductor Scully firing the several trains. Indeed from the very commencement he evinced his gallantry by volunteering his services for blowing up the Magazine & remained true to his trust to the last moment.

As soon as the explosion took place such as escaped from beneath the ruins & none escaped unhurt, retreated through the sally-port on the [river] face.

Lieut. Willoughby and I succeeded in reaching the Cashmere gate. What became of the other parties is impossible for me to say. Lieut. Raynor & Conductor Buckley have escaped to this station. Severe indisposition prevented my sending in this report sooner.

I have etc.
signed G. Forrest Lieut.
Asst. Commissary of Ordnance

Meerut
May 27th 1857

 

N.B. - After crossing the river on the night of the 11th, I observed the whole of the magazine to be on fire, so that I am in hopes that little of the property fell into the hands of the enemy.  Park Sergt. Hoyle was shot about 11 am by the mutineers in attempting to reach the Magazine to aid in its defence.

True Copy
signed:- A Abbott. Col.
Insp. Gen. of Ordnance & Magazine
signed:- R.J.H. Birch Col.
Secy to Govt. of India Military Dept:

 


The above item was transcribed from William Raynor's hand-written report on the incident.  A copy of the report was kindly suppled by Michael Long, William Raynor's great great grandson.

 

Victoria Cross

June 1858

For his bravery defending the Delhi Magazine during the Indian Mutiny, Lieutenant William Raynor was awarded the Victoria Cross.

His citation in The London Gazette was:

'For gallant conduct in defence of the Magazine at Delhi, on the 11th May 1857. Of the gallant nine only four escaped. When the Magazine was blown into the air, five of them died with it – and with them died also a thousand Mutineers. Willoughby and Forrest joined a party of Europeans at the Main Guard at Delhi, so blackened as to be almost unrecognizable. Willoughby was shortly afterwards killed in an encounter with the Mutineers in a village on the way to Kutrnaul. At the attack on the fort at Rootya, Lieutenant Edward Willoughby (brother of the Willoughby of the Powder Magazine), though on the sick-list, left his dhooly to join in the fight, and was killed in a daring attempt to scale the parapet. Captain Cafe and Private Thomson brought in his body, and won the Victoria Cross. The two other men of the nine who escaped were Raynor and Buckley, who, taking different directions, eventually reached Meerut in safety.'

The VC citation was:

'On the 11th May 1857 at Delhi, India, Lieutenant Raynor and nine other soldiers defended the Magazine of the fort for more than five hours against a large vastly superior number of rebels and mutineers. When the enemy had finally scaled the wall and with no relief in sight, Lieutenant Raynor ordered the contents of the Magazine to be detonated. Only Lieutenant Raynor and two other soldiers survived, but many of the enemy were killed. At the age of 61 Lieutenant William Raynor is the oldest person to receive the Victoria Cross.'

example victoria crossThe engraving on the reverse of the Victoria Cross reads:

 

 

CAPTN. WM. RAYNOR
BENGAL VETERAN ESTABT.
11TH MAY
1857

 

 

It was about this time that William Raynor was promoted to Captain, a rank he held until his death.

William Raynor was aged 61 years and 10 months when he was awarded his Victoria Cross – the oldest recipient ever (a record which is unlikely to be broken since these days Army officers tend to retire at when they are fifty-five).

William Raynor's Death

13th December 1860

William Raynor died of natural causes at Ferozepore in North India on the Indo-Pakistan border.

14th December 1860

William Raynor was buried at the Ferozepore Civil Cemetery; the site of his grave is shown below. His tombstone read:

william raynor's graveBeneath this tomb lie the mortal remains of
CAPTAIN WILLIAM RAYNOR, V. C.,

Dept. Commissary of Ordnance

who died at Ferozepore on the 13th December 1860
aged 64 years 5 months.

Honoured and beloved he lived
honoured and lamented he died

 

Note: Captain Raynor's tomb was originally a substantial monument surrounded by cast iron railings.  The above image shows the site of the tomb after it was '...desecrated' to quote his great great grandson.

3rd August 1865

By a SANAD, or imperial warrant, of August 1865, William Raynor's widow, Mary, was granted 2,000 acres of forest at Dehra Dun, 100 miles north of Delhi, close to the foothills of the Himalayas. [3]

Some of this land was turned by her and his children into a tea plantation, but probably most into a leper colony, which became known as 'Raynorpore'.

Unfortunately, many of the family papers relating to it have long since disappeared, but the name may have survived in that of the town of Ranipur, near which there is still a large school for the children of lepers.

Events of 1960 to 1990

1960/1961

William Raynor's VC had remained in the Raynor family since it was awarded in 1858. However in 1960/1961, Raynor's great grandson (who was a retired Indian Army colonel) reluctantly had to sell the medal when a combination of factors put the family in financial straits.

The medal was sold by Spink Dealers and Auctioneers to an anonymous American collector.

21st September
1963

Issue No 2 of 'The Hornet' features the attack on the Delhi Magazine in its 'Deeds of Glory' feature under the title 'THE OLDEST VC'. Click on the images below to read the story (opens a pdf icon PDF document).

page 1 of the oldest vic page 2 of the oldest vic page 3 of the oldest vic

© DC Thomson 1963.
Thanks to the following for supplying a scanned version of this item:
Vic Whittle (http://www.britishcomics.20m.com/)
Adrian Banfield (http://www.victorhornetcomics.co.uk/)

November 1987

The William Raynor VC came up for auction. William's great-great grandson (also called William) and great-great granddaughter (Shirley) were determined to buy it back and, via a benefactor, they successfully raised the £11,000 needed to secure its purchase.

The medal was again sold by Spink Dealers and Auctioneers.

17th December 1987

The new owners presented the medal to the Royal Army Ordnance Corps (RAOC) Museum at Blackdown Barracks, Deepcut in Surrey

13th October 1988

The medal was displayed in the RAOC Museum alongside the Victoria Cross awarded to Raynor's colleague, William Buckley.

Note that the RAOC Museum is now part of Royal Logistic Corps and is based in The Princess Royal Barracks, Deepcut.

The Raynor family is very happy now that the medal is in the safe hands of the RAOC. Sadly, it is not currently on display but is stored in the bank; it can be viewed, if requested.

Raynor's Cottages

April 1993

As part of preparations for National Housing week (7th to 13th June 1993) during which two semi-detached bungalows were to be built on Church Hill, Plumtree Parish Council decided that they would like to name the bungalows 'Raynor Cottages' in honour of William Raynor.

They wrote to the curator of the RAOC in an attempt to trace any surviving relatives of Captain Raynor.

His relatives (William and Shirley, see details of the sale and recovery of the medal above) were duly traced and were invited to the "handing over of the keys" ceremony to be held on June 14th.

8th June
1993

Work starts on constructing Raynor's Cottages.

Photographs of the cottages being built.

14th June
1993

opening ceremony for raynor's cottages

Raynor's Cottages opened by Rt Hon Kenneth Clarke QC MP, Chancellor of the Exchequer in celebration of National Housing Week 1993.

 

william raynor's decendants at the opening ceremony

William Raynor's great-great-grandchildren Mr William Raynor and Mrs Shirley Trollope.

Nottinghamshire Victoria Cross Memorial Project

7th May
2010

The Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Victoria Cross Memorial Project's Memorial to Nottinghamshire's Twenty Recipients of the Victoria Cross is officially unveiled in the grounds of Nottingham Castle.

dedication of nottinghamshire's victoria cross memorial

Photo courtesy of the Castle Rock brewery

Commemorative Plaque

17th July 2011

On the morning of July 17th 2011 following a service of dedication at St Mary’s Church, Plumtree, a brass plaque commemorating Captain William Raynor VC was unveiled.

william raynor's memorial plaque

The plaque is attached to the apex of the oak notice board outside the west gate of the churchyard.

The unveiling took place during a fine break on a showery day and was attended by several civic dignitaries:

dedication of william raynor's memorial plaque

From left to right: Nigel Cutts (Chairman of the Trustees of Burnside Hall, Plumtree); Gordon Moore (Mayor of Rushcliffe Borough Council); Kay Cutts (Leader of Nottinghamshire County Council); Mike Clark (Chair of Plumtree Parish Council); Mrs Georgina Moore (wife of the Mayor); Reg Adair (Nottinghamshire County Councillor); Ged Fletcher (representing Normanton on the Wolds Parish Council) and Revd Trevor Kirkman (Rector of Plumtree).

Photo courtesy of Dave Voce.
 

We were also delighted that four of William Raynor’s direct descendants were able to attend:

william raynor's decendants at the dedication ceremony

Photo courtesy of Dave Voce.

The church service and the unveiling of the plaque were both well attended and were a fitting tribute to one of Plumtree’s most gallant men.

[1] Honourable East India Company

The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China. On 31 December 1600, Queen Elizabeth I granted the Company an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies.

In the late 17th century, after a rival English company challenged its monopoly, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, more commonly referred to as the Honourable East India Company and abbreviated HEIC.

The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium and came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits. Company rule in India (which effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey, lasted until 1858, when, following the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India in the new British Raj.

[2] Sub Conductors and Conductors

Warrant officers in the East India Company's armies held the ranks of Sub Conductor and Conductor, serving mainly in the Ordnance, Commissariat and Public Works Departments. They were recruited from the Town Major's List which in turn was largely recruited from the NCOs of the Company's European regiments although occasionally NCOs of British regiments stationed in India were appointed to it.

The Ordnance Department was the part of the military responsible for the supply of weapons and ammunition.

The Commissariat was responsible for Army Supply, excluding weapons and ammunition.

The Public Works Department was responsible for buildings, roads, irrigation and railways.

[3] SANAD

Below is the wording of the Sanad that granted the land to William Raynor's widow:

In consideration of the good services performed by the late Captain William Raynor, Victoria Cross, of the Veteran Battalion one of the gallant defenders of the Delhi Magazine in 1857, the Government, North-Western Provinces has been pleased to grant to Mrs: Ann Raynor, his widow, and to his Heirs, Representatives, and Assigns, the proprietary right rent free in perpetuity, in the tract of land measuring 2000 acres, specified below, to wit:-

Two thousand acres of land situated in the Bengala and Rambaha Nuddee Forest in the Pergarah of Eastern Doon in the Zilla of Dehra Dun, the boundaries of which are as follows:-

North. - Major Lysters and the Rani Pokree Grants.
East.  - Burkote.
South. - From the pillar on the east below Burcote passing thirty yards south of Major Lyster's south eastern pillar, thence due west to Jakhun.
West.  - Jakhun Rao


The area covered by the Raynor Grant (Rainapur Grant) is shown on the map below; note the adjacent Grants of Rani Pokree (Rani Pokhari) and Major Lyster (Listrabad).

map showing the raynor grant

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